3 kinds of knowledge:
- How?.. to ride a bike
- By acquaintance: Berlin- have been there, ‘acquaintance of/knowledge of’ Berlin
- By description: facts; not direct knowledge; have read about it
Knowledge as the representation (a reliable copy) or a grasp (how good?) of how things (how can we be certain it is real) are.
Plato’s Theory of Knowledge
Plato’s epistemology is supported by his metaphysics.
Epistemology: theory of knowledge
Metaphysics: nature of reality
Plato – 5th Century B.C.
- Truth in singular: believes in 1 form of knowledge
- the forms
- the original for of the good
- single form gives life to ourselves
- Metaphysics of life
- lights makes things visible and gives growth without it being a process
- The simile of the cave
- cave is reality but there is something bigger above it – God
- Techne – doing things well
- an essence, original/higher transcendence
Opinion – seeing what lies between ignorance and knowledge
Knowledge: what is
Ignorance: what is not
Art descieves: it irraticates – art is simple a copy. Memesis: imitation;representation
Art is a form of deception – it tricks the eye; adds to appearances; misrepresentation of reality – could mistake art for reality.
The art of representation is therefore a long way removed from the truth. Art is only painting appearances; not attending to beyond that or the truth.
Designers: manufacture, further along the path of true knowledge – they have to listen to someone of relevant knowledge to create an object. Artists do not open themselves up to knowledge, only approach things through appearances so only have opinion; knowledge is a function and you must look beyond appearances for knowledge.
Question 1: What is knowledge? How does is differ from opinion? How can you be certain that you know what (you think) you know?
- Opinion: what you think, not alway what is true
- knowledge: what is fact, what has been researched to prove is truth – keeps changing
Ideas stretch through time, even if the idea is old it can inform our thinking today.
Plato calls arguments dialectic:
- how one idea supports another
- form relationships
- weak and strong relationships are formed
- stronger relationship = higher truth
Nietzche’s Theory of Knowledge
Nihilsm: denial of the forms and any of God
Living beings construct truth
Plato is: idealist
Darwin’s theory was written around the time as Nietzche’s.
Both philosophers have a theory of knowledge shaped on their nature of reality, just each person’s nature of reality is different:
- Believed something bigger, shaped by God
- We are humans; order and chaos
- art is one of the highest forms
- always moving, always shifting
Nietzche attack on Plato:
- No leaf is the same, they are ever-changing
- Perception is metaphorical
- What is the correct interpretation of sound?
- vibration: a sound we here? or a shape made out of sound?
- (Chlandi: scientist made sound shapes through vibrations)
- can never hope to know what things are in reality
- we are apart of this reality
- no separate of humans and world
- we are a cluster of forces
- art is the highest knowledge – always leaping from ideas
Translations: taking a thing through an image or a human eye
Nietzche’s idea: metaphor translation, ideas or chaos
Knowledge is an idea of what someones thinks it is: theorised. Knowledge isn’t one thing.
Question 2: How do Plato’s and Nietzche’s theories of knowledge differ? What are the consequences of conflict between them?
Plato and Nietzche offer different theories of Knowledge.
[explain the theories] [they are opposites] [time periods] [idealist v. nihilist] [one truth v. forces, translation, transformation]
- when writing imagine writing to a young person – e.g. 14 year old